Deduction: Direct Strategy
1. Using the examples from the first exercise of the previous chapter, place the premises and conclusion in boards. Example:
Formalize the following simple syllogisms. Use “W”, “V”, “Y” for the atomic propositions.
If we put into action the agrarian reform, the land will produce more. If the land produces more then the farmers will overcome their current poverty. Therefore, if we put into action the agrarian reform, farmers will overcome their current poverty.
If we raise the level of national education, its graduates will be better prepared. If graduates are better prepared, then their later achievements will be good for the country. Therefore, if we raise the level of national education, then the achievements of its graduates will be good for the country.
Resolve the previous simple syllogisms, illustrating each step with a drawing and enumerating the tactics applied.
Resolve the following arguments. Propose an example in ordinary language for each one of them.
Formalize the following arguments and resolve them indicating each one of the steps and tactics used. If there are any tacit premises, state them in ordinary language and formalize them.
If the quality of television programs is not monitored, then our population will be damaged. If freedom of expression is censored, dictatorship is at hand. Either the quality of television programs is not monitored or freedom of expression is censored. Therefore, either our population is damaged or dictatorship is at hand.
All felines are mammals. All cats are felines. Therefore, all cats are mammals.
Si se implanta la reforma agraria habrá oposición de los terratenientes. If agrarian reform is introduced there will be opposition from landowners. If real estate taxes are raised, then there will also be opposition from landowners. Either agrarian reform is introduced or real estate taxes are raised. Therefore, there will be opposition from landowners.
No non-human animal is rational. Every lion is a non-human animal. No lion is rational.
Sanitary dispositions are not appropriate since the epidemic continues.
Some vitalist thinkers are biologists, since all irrationalists are vitalist and some biologists are irrationalists.
If what I said was inappropriate I offended, and if I offended I must apologize; but if I was misinterpreted I must explain myself. Either what I said was inappropriate or I was misinterpreted. Therefore, I must apologize or explain myself.