In the following cases, distinguish those that respond to a complete induction and those that respond to an incomplete one. Conjecture if you do not know.
All members of the cabinet have university degrees.
Soccer is the favorite sport of Costa Ricans.
The teachers of my school have a good training.
All men like to learn.
Americans love democracy.
All members of Congress and the Executive Branch fulfill diligently their duties.
The Sun will rise tomorrow. It has always done so.
Most students from this class enjoy this subject matter.
Indicate which kind of condition each one of the following statements uses.
The cost of living will rise if taxes are increased.
Only if agrarian reform is introduced, Latin American campesinos will gain complete economic independence and dignity.
We will obtain a real reform in our high school education, if and only if the preparation level of our teachers is considerably raised.
If the family environment of marginal people is ameliorated, juvenile delinquency will certainly diminish.
Malaria will disappear from the world only if pest control is systematically maintained.
Third World youth will lead a productive life once it is offered a real opportunity to participate actively in the integral development of their countries.
Make a detailed analysis of the following texts and paragraphs, pointing out facts that serve as evidence, hypotheses formulated, their verification, applications of Mill’s methods, etc.
“This association of touch and smell senses is very useful for the bees when visiting flowers. They often take their antennas near the flower, almost in contact with it, so that they can perceive even very weak smells. Likewise, if various parts of a flower have different odors, bees can distinguish and locate these separate portions in a very precise way. With this in mind, I asked myself if there could be guiding spots to the nectar not only to the eye but also to the sense of smell. It was a pleasure to find that in many flowers it was really so. In a narcissus, for instance, the yellow guide to the nectar is not only different in color to that of the white corolla but also has a different smell. If we separate the yellow parts of the flower from the white parts, and train the bees with one of the odors, they can exactly distinguish between the two. And even we are able to perceive the difference in smell easily once the parts have been separated, which we cannot do when the flower is whole, because the two odors mix before reaching our olfactory organs. Bees, with their sense of smell located in the surface of their antennae, can easily detect such differences and be directed to the nectar by these perfumed areas. Such perfumed spots also exist in other flowers. Sometimes, there is no difference in quality, but an increase of intensity in the smell around the entrance at bottom of the flower, where nectar is located.” (Karl von Frisch. Bees)
“The fortunate idea came to me to orient my crystals with reference to a plane perpendicular to the observer, and then I noticed that the confused mass of crystals of paratartrate could be divided into two groups according to the orientation of their facets of symmetry. In one group, the facet of symmetry nearer my body was inclined to my right with reference to the plane of orientation which I just mentioned, whereas the facet of asymmetry was inclined to my left in the other. The paratartrate appeared as a mixture of two kinds of crystals, some asymmetric to the right, some asymmetric to the left. A new and obvious idea soon occurred to me. These crystals asymmetric to the right, which I could separate manually from the others, exhibited an absolute identity of shape with those of the classical right tartrate.
Pursuing my preconceived idea, in the logic of its deductions, I separated these right crystals from the crystallized paratartrate; I made the lead salt and isolated the acid; this acid appeared absolutely identical with the tartaric acid of grape, identical also in its action on polarized light. My happiness was even greater the day when, separating now from the paratartare the crystals with asymmetry at their left, and making their acid, I obtained a tartaric absolutely similar to the tartaric acid of grape, but with an opposite asymmetry, and also with an opposite action on light. Its shape was identical to that of the mirror image of the right tartaric acid and, other things being equal, it rotated light to the left as much in absolute amount as the other acid did it to the right.
Finally, when I mixed solutions containing equal weights of the two acids, the mixture gave origin to a crystallized mass of paratartric acid, identical to the known paratartric acid.” (Pasteur. Cited by René Dubos in Pasteur and Modern Science)
“Two light emitting points, located near each other, over the same vertical line, are kindled at the same instant, in front of a revolving mirror. The rays emitted from the top reach the mirror after passing through a tube full of water; the rays from the bottom reach the mirror without passing through any mean, but air. We assume that, as seen by the observer, the mirror revolves from right to left. If the theory of emission (particle theory) is correct, if light is matter, the upper point will seem to be at the left hand side of the bottom point (after its reflection through the revolving mirror); it will seem to be at its right if, on the contrary, light is the result of propagated vibrations through an ethereal mean… Does the image of the upper point appear at the left of the other? Light is a body. Does the reverse occur? The image of the upper point appears at the right? Light is an undulation. When Foucalt carried out the experiment, he found that the image of the upper point appeared on the right.” (Philipp Frank. Philosophy of Science)
Offer two valid and two invalid applications of Mill’s methods.